The periodic table of the elements is drawn up in a systematic way: in rows and columns. The types of elements are identified with a different color: green, orange, blue, lilac, purple, red and yellow.
The table shows the fundamental data of each of the chemical elements. For example: the name, symbol, atomic mass, atomic number, electronegativity, oxidation states, electron configuration, and ionization energy; in this way its use can be more easily determined.
The periodic table is arranged in 7 horizontal rows, also called periods. In these periods are grouped the elements whose number of electron shells is equal to the number of the period. For example: the 8 elements of period 2 have 2 electron shells each.
Additionally, it contains 18 columns called groups or families that are numbered from left to right starting from the number 1 belonging to the alkali metals and ending with the number 18 belonging to the family of noble gases.
The elements belonging to the same group or family have similar characteristics, above all, the structure of their electrons in the last layer of the atom is taken into account. An example is Potassium, which has 4 layers, but in the last one it has only one electron, for this reason it is in group number 1.
The table is also organized by 4 blocks: in block S there are groups 1 and 2 hydrogen, helium, alkali and alkaline earth metals. The P block is made up of groups 13 to 18 and metalloids. Block D is made up of groups 3 to 12 and transition metals. Finally, there is the block F that has no assigned group number; however, the lanthanides and actinides correspond to this.