Group 10: Nickel Family

The Group 10 Metals include Elements of group 10 includes Nickel (Ni) Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt) and Darmstadtium (Ds). These elements are important in many chemical processes. They are also very reactive and dangerous. These metals are ductile, resistant to tarnish, and have high luster. They also appear in a number of pure forms. In particular, platinum is one of the hardest metals known to man, and can be polished to a high shine (Yin, et al., 2012).

 

1. Electronic Configuration

General electronic configuration of group 10 is (n-1) ns2 nd8, while the electronic configuration of group 10 members is as follows (Kwatra, 2017).

 

Ni [28] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s2 3d8
Pd [46] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s0 4d10 or [Kr] 4d10
Pt [78] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s1 4f14 5d9 or [Xe] 6s1 4f14 5d9
Ds [110] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 5f14 6d8 or [Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d8

 

2. Trend in the physical properties

These metals have a high melting point and low density. They are also reactive, forming compounds with Hydrogen. These properties make them very useful in conducting electricity. Trend in their physical properties is as follows (Nagle, 2019).

 

2.1. Atomic and ionic radii

Atomic and ionic radius of group 10 elements increases gradually from nickel to Platinum with the exception of Ds whose expected atomic radius is smaller than the other member of its group while its ionic radii is unknown (Yin, et al., 2012).

Atomic radius group 5 periodic table

Figure 1: Atomic radius of Group 10 elements

Ionic radius group 5 periodic table

Figure 2: Ionic radius of Group 10 elements

 

2.2. Ionization energy

Ionization energy of group 10 elements increases gradually from Nickel to Darmstadtium.
Ionization energy of group 10 elements in kilo joule per mole (Kwatra, 2017).

First ionization energy group 5 periodic table

Figure 3: First Ionization Energy of the Group 10 elements

 

2.3. Melting and boiling point

Melting and boiling point of group 10 elements increases gradually from nickel to platinum while m.p and b. p of Darmstadtium is unknown (Nagle, 2019).

melting and boiling points group 5 periodic table

Figure 4: Melting and Boiling Points of the Group 10 elements

 

3. Coordination chemistry of group 10

Nowadays, Palladium complexes are widely used in a lot of chemical processes. Several research mainly concentrated their attention, for the most part, on the electronical structures and behavior of such substances.
Among the chemotherapeutic agents, platinum-based antineoplastic drugs inhibit DNA synthesis and repair and are effective against a variety of cancers. They are also teratogenic and have significant renal and intestinal toxicities. Pt(II) complexes are often used as catalysts in homogeneous catalysis processes. For example, they are important reaction intermediates in late transition-metal complex reactions.
Several different types of coordination complexes have been reported for Nickel. These complexes are known to have an oxidation state of +2. Some of these compounds can be stabilized by electronegative elements.

 

4. Uses of Group 10 elements

Group 10 elements have following important uses.
Platinum has a wide variety of uses. Besides jewelry, it is also used in the electrical industry, as a catalyst, for making silicone and for medical applications.
Platinum has also been used in the electronics industry for making electrodes and optical fibers. Its use has also increased the data storage capacity of electronic devices.
Palladium is also useful as a catalyst. It is an essential element in catalytic converters, which convert toxic substances in exhaust to less harmful ones. These converters are usually added to cars to control emissions and burn fuel more efficiently.
In several contexts, nickel becomes useful. A durable, gleaming white metallic which doesn’t easily rust or corrode. It can also be electroplated on other metals to create protective coatings.
One of the most common uses of nickel is in making batteries. These batteries are used to power electronics, power tools, and even emergency power supplies. The metal is also used to make some types of coins.

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Conclusion

Known as the transition metals, group 10 elements have similar electron configuration. These elements are white to light grey in color and highly ductile. They are also highly resistant to tarnish. In special conditions, they enter into the oxidation state of (+1).

 

References

1. Xie, L. H., Yin, C. R., Lai, W. Y., Fan, Q. L., & Huang, W. (2012). Polyfluorene-based semiconductors combined with various periodic table elements for organic electronics. Progress in Polymer Science, 37(9), 1192-1264.
2. Kwatra, B. (2017). Locator Theory for Elements in Periodic Tabe ‘LEPT’. Glob. J. Pure Appl. Chem. Res, 5, 9-10.
3. Schwerdtfeger, P., & Nagle, J. K. (2019). 2018 Table of static dipole polarizabilities of the neutral elements in the periodic table. Molecular Physics, 117(9-12), 1200-1225.