Group 5: Vanadium Family

Group 5 represents the vanadium family. This is a group of light, hard refractory metals. In addition, Group 5 is a part of the broader grouping of transition metals. It is including elements that are considered as transition metals. This means that they are less rich in coordination chemistry than those in the previous group. Group 5 contains Vanadium (V), Niobium (Nb), Tantalum (Ta) and Dubnium (Db) (Anim & Jung, 2018).

 

1. Electronic Configuration

General electronic configuration of Group 5 is (n-1) ns2 nd3, while the electronic configuration of each member is as follows (Lengler & Eppler, 2007).

 

V [23] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d³ or [Ar] 5s2 4d3
Nb [41] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d3 or [Kr] 5s2 4d3
Ta [73] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d3 or [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d3
Db [105] 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 5f14 6d3 or [Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d3

 

2. Trend in the physical properties

The group 5 elements have a range of physical properties, and have similar trends to those of the group 4. Group 5 elements also have a relatively high melting point. They are still good conductors of electricity and are relatively soft. It also has a low density. These metals are malleable. These properties are useful in reducing the weight of the finished product (Jena, 2013).

 

2.1. Atomic and ionic radii

Atomic and ionic radius of Group 5 elements increase from vanadium to Dubnium due to increase in atomic number. But denim is excluded in this regard which has smaller size than the other member of its group while ionic radius of Dubnium ion is unknown (Anim & Jung, 2018).

Atomic radius group 5 periodic table

Figure 1: Atomic radius of Group 5 elements

Ionic radius group 5 periodic table

Figure 2: Ionic radius of Group 5 elements

 

2.2. Ionization energy

Ionization energy of group 5 elements increase from Vanadium to Dubnium in group with exception of Dubnium which has lower value of ionization energy than Tantanium (Lengler & Eppler, 2007).

First ionization energy group 5 periodic table

Figure 3: First Ionization Energy of the Group 5 elements

 

2.3. Melting and boiling point

From vanadium to Tantanium in group 5, melting and boiling point increase continuously with the exception of Dubnium which has lower melting and boiling point than other member of its group.

melting and boiling points group 5 periodic table

Figure 4: Melting and Boiling Points of the Group 5 elements

 

3. Coordination chemistry of group 5

Several Group 5 elements are known to form coordination compounds. They form coordinate covalent bonds, which is a form of Lewis acid-base interaction. These compounds are usually highly colored, and many have important industrial and biological properties. Each molecule has an overall charge, which is equal to the sum of the metal ion and the ligands. This charge is determined by the oxidation state of the metal. A blue Vanadium ion is formed when a Vanadium (IV) molecule is present in water. It has a formal V=O bond. The coordination chemistry of group 5 elements is similar to that of group 4. The elements of Group 5 are usually found in oxide ores, which are known to be the highest oxidation states. These complexes are known to have many different properties, and a variety of uses (Jena, 2013).

 

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4. Uses of group 5 elements

Elements of group 5 are used in computers, cell phones, and many vehicles. They are also sold as oxide compounds. The demand for rare earth compounds is driven by the use of portable electronic devices. These elements are also used in the exhaust systems of air pollution control. Numerous machines as well as engines rely on them. They are often found together in geologic deposits. Group 5 elements have similar stoichiometries to group 4. Multiple inorganic chemical compounds depend on them as an ingredient. Alloys may be made from them. The compounds of Group 5 elements are involved in water purification, oxygen transport in the blood, and pharmaceutical uses (Jena, 2013).

 

Conclusion

Group V elements include Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum. These elements are used in vanadium steel, vanadium ceramics, and some important catalysts. They come from the same places, have the same chemical composition, and serve the same purposes. Due to their chemical properties, they are classified as a single group. The presence of three valence electrons is indicative of this property. This allows them to form covalent bonds in compounds. They are malleable, shiny, and have good conductivity.

 

References

1. Anim, K., & Jung, Y. B. (2018). Shortened log-periodic dipole antenna using printed dual-band dipole elements. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 66(12), 6762-6771.
2. Jena, P. (2013). Beyond the periodic table of elements: The role of superatoms. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4(9), 1432-1442.
3. Lengler, R., & Eppler, M. J. (2007, January). Towards a periodic table of visualization methods for management. In IASTED Proceedings of the Conference on Graphics and Visualization in Engineering (GVE 2007), Clearwater, Florida, USA (Vol. 7, No. 8, p. 31)