The d block elements are a part of the periodic table and they play a key role in the chemical world. They are essential for chemistry d block elements are characterized by a general electronic configuration and relatively small ionic size. In most cases, they have a metallic appearance. These elements are also referred to as “transitional metals.” Their properties are similar to those of s and p block elements. The presence of electrons in the d-orbital of the penultimate energy level sets them apart from those of s- and p-block components. Substances of the d block, sometimes called transitional elements, may be located in Groups 3–12 of the chemical structure (Constable, 2019).
Often referred to as transition elements, the occurrence of d block elements on the periodic table is a significant part of its history. These elements have shaped the history of chemistry, including the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and modern periods. The occurrence of d block elements has been important to modern chemistry. They have been the touchstones for many theories about valence and bonding (Masson & Thomas, 2020).
2. Properties of d block elements
Their chemical properties can be derived only through experiment. However, their properties are similar to those of other transition elements. Both heating and electrical may be conducted effectively through them. As a group, d-block elements have moderate condensation and boils points. The elements of the d-block series have all been shown to have significant covalent properties. Binary substances may be created when they react with elements that aren’t metallic. Covalent bonding characterizes all halides in the d-heavier block’s components. They have properties that are characteristic of metals. These properties include ductility, thermal conductivity and malleability (Stanley-Gray, 2021).
2.1. Electronic configuration
They exhibit similar electronic configurations to the S and P blocks, but their ionization energies are smaller. Most d block elements have a half-filled d orbital, but a few atoms have completely filled orbitals. Some examples of metals with full orbitals include Zn, Cd, and Hg. In their ground state, Zn has an electronic configuration of 3d104s1, Cd has an electronic configuration of 3d106s1, and Hg has an electronic configuration of 3d104s3. They are all non-covalent, but they can receive electrons from anions. The d block elements are characterized by the presence of ns electrons in the bonding process. These electrons are used to form both ionic and covalent bonds. Additionally, they contribute to the generation of distinct oxidation states.
2.2. Melting and boiling point
The melting and boiling point of d block elements are high. The d block elements have high melting and boiling points because of their strong metallic bonds. The number of electrons participating in interatomic metallic bonds is a function of the number of atoms and the number of d-orbitals.
2.3. Alloy formation
During alloy formation, atoms from two or more elements combine to form a new alloy. These metals possess high hardness and strength. They can be used in different applications. They also have a high tolerance to oxidation. They also have varied hues.
2.4. Oxidation State
Generally, d block elements exhibit a wide range of oxidation states in compounds. The range of oxidation states can be attributed to the relative availability of d orbitals for bond formation. For example, the majority of p-block elements have a positive oxidation state.
2.5. 2.5 Colored Ions
During spectroscopy of visible light, different frequencies of light are passed through a sample of complex ions. Light absorption determines the color of the complex. Complexes of the same metal are different colors depending on their oxidation state and ligands.
3. Applications of d block elements
• These elements are widely used in industry and construction, and in some cases, they are also used as catalysts. They are malleable and can be made into alloys, which are used for construction applications. These alloys include lanthanide elements. These alloys are also used for heat-resistant materials (Constable, 2019).
• The main applications of d block elements are found in the construction industry. Also, they’re important there in Haber cycle that results in the production of ammonium. Iron is the least widely utilized metallic in the contemporary world. Iron, while being a relatively soft metal, is often utilized in stress-resisting applications. Iron alloys are used for the manufacture of steel (Masson & Thomas, 2020; Stanley-Gray, 2021).
Those who have learned about the periodic table know that the d block elements are placed between the s and p blocks. Transitional elements are another name for these substances. Compounds may benefit greatly from the addition of these components. They have high enthalpy, tensile strength, and malleability. They show electrical conductivity and metallic luster. They are also characterized by many oxidation states.
1. Constable, E. C. (2019). Evolution and understanding of the d-block elements in the periodic table. Dalton Transactions, 48(26), 9408-9421.
2. Hamani, D., Masson, O., & Thomas, P. (2020). Localization and steric effect of the lone electron pair of the tellurium Te4+ cation and other cations of the p-block elements. A systematic study. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 53(5), 1243-1251.
3. Stanley-Gray, J., Zhang, Z., & Venkataraman, D. (2021). Updated Coordination Geometry Table of the d-Block Elements and Their Ions. Journal of Chemical Education, 98(7), 2476-2481.