Elements families whose orbitals shell is dominated by the p shells are called the p block. The elements can also be either cations or anions. This group consists of 13 to 18 elements in the periodic table. Within periodical structure, these p block constituents being organized into six separate categories. The first element in each column has one p-orbital electron. The other elements in the columns have two electrons in the p-orbital.
Elements belonging to the P block are included in Groups 13–18 of such Chemical Chart. These elements are often considered to be the main group elements. They are also considered transition elements. They are found in various forms, such as Free states, sulphates, and carbonates.
2. Properties of p block elements
Among the three classes of elements on the periodic table, the p block is unique in its wide range of properties. There are metallic and nonmetallic among such elements. However, their biochemical and physical characteristics are distinct from one another. The oxidized levels of elements in the p block are far more variable than those in the s block. Depending on the number of valence electrons in an atom, the oxidation state of p block elements ranges from – 2 to +2. The p block contains a large variety of chemically important nonmetals, including halogens and metalloids. Halogens are inert reaction mediums, while metalloids are chemically useful in a variety of industries (Check, et al., 2001).
2.1. Electronic configuration
The p block elements are characterized by an ns2 np1 to ns2 np6 outer electronic configuration. They may contain anywhere from 3 to 8 electrons in their valence shell, and between 6 and 12 electrons in their valence shell. Elements there in p block have oxidized states that correspond to the numbers of electrons in their valence shells. Each p subshell has 3 defective p-orbitals. Two electrons may fit into each orbit. When the inner core is filled, the chemical properties may change. The inner p sublevel is the last to fill. There are p block elements in the first six rows of the Chemical Elements. The first element in each column has one p-orbital electron. The other elements in the columns have two electrons in the p-orbital (Miao, 2013).
2.2. Melting and boiling point
Melting and boiling points vary in a regular pattern depending on the position of an element on the periodic table. These physical properties are heavily influenced by variation in the inner core of the atoms. Increasing atomic size increases interatomic forces and increases the enthalpy of vaporization. The melting and boiling point of an element is an energy needed to convert the element from a solid to a liquid state. The intensity of interparticle forces determines the temperature at which a substance boils. Increasing the strength of the bonds between particles will increase the boiling point. Higher temperatures overcome dipole-dipole forces and separate the molecules into the gaseous phase.
Using the periodic table, we can learn more about the reactivity of p block elements. The p block contains non-metals, metals, and halogens. Almost all the elements of the p-block can form covalent compounds, such as ionic compounds. As the proportion of valence electrons in atoms of p-block elements increases, their oxidation states become more stable. There are also additional oxidation states depending on the stability of the ion. The elements in this block are highly reactive, and they form covalent compounds with metals. p-block substances tend to have larger atomic sizes and smaller nuclear sizes.
Throughout the periodic table, there are elements that have no valence electrons, known as non-metals. These elements tend to have high ionization energy. They are often poor conductors of electricity and have low thermal conductivity. Some of the p-block elements are used as semiconductors. These elements include silicon and germanium.
2.5. Metallic and non-metallic character
It is important to note that certain p-block elements constitute transition metals. These elements include arsenic, boron, tolonium and tellurium. This block also includes metals and non-metals.
Recommended: Blocks in The Periodic Table of Elements
3. Applications of p block elements
• Generally, p block elements are found in many chemical compounds. They are also used in pharmaceutics, medicine and polymer production. They are important in human civilization. They are also found in many materials, such as glass, aluminum, and aluminocarbons. These metals are used in utensils, coils, and for conducting electricity. . They are often found in glass and ceramics. They are also used in vehicle fuel.
• Elements in the p-block may be found in a variety of oxidized states. In chemical reactions, most p-block elements produce corrosive oxides. These oxides are widely used in glass cleaning and other industries. Another advantage of the p-block elements is that they can be used as catalysts for energy conversion. Interestingly, they are also considered to be inexpensive carbon neutralization catalysts. They are used in metals such as gold and silver (Norman & Nicholas, 2021).
Often considered the main group elements, the p block consists of a range of distinctive metals. It is also home to many non-metals, including metalloids and noble gases. These elements are known for their diverse properties. Characteristics change as valence electrons counts in the atoms change.
1. Check, C. E., Faust, T. O., Bailey, J. M., Wright, B. J., Gilbert, T. M., & Sunderlin, L. S. (2001). Addition of polarization and diffuse functions to the LANL2DZ basis set for p-block elements. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 105(34), 8111-8116.
2. Miao, M. S. (2013). Caesium in high oxidation states and as a p-block element. Nature Chemistry, 5(10), 846-852.
3. Norman, N. C., & Nicholas, C. (2021). Periodicity and the S-and P-block Elements. Oxford University Press.