Dysprosium

8.55
162.500
[Xe] 4f106s2
164Dy
6
f
66
2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
573.017
Dy
8.55
1412°C, 2574°F, 1685 K
2567°C, 4653°F, 2840 K
Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
1886
7429-91-6
22355
More Information
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Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

Dysprosium, classified as a Rare Earth Element (REE), plays a primary role in crafting permanent magnets, critical components in the construction of wind turbines and electric vehicles.

Appearance

A bright, silvery metallic element.

Uses

Dysprosium: Empowering Innovation Across Industries


In the intricate realm of rare earth elements, Dysprosium (Dy) emerges as a silent but powerful contributor to a myriad of technological advancements. With its atomic number 66, Dysprosium plays a pivotal role in shaping modern industries through its unique properties. In this article, we will delve into the versatile and indispensable uses of Dysprosium across various sectors, illustrating its impact on innovation and progress.

 

1. Permanent Magnets for Clean Energy


One of the primary and most notable applications of Dysprosium lies in the realm of permanent magnets, particularly in the development of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. These high-strength magnets are crucial components in electric vehicle (EV) motors, wind turbines, and various green energy technologies.

Dysprosium is strategically added to NdFeB magnets to enhance their coercivity, a measure of their resistance to demagnetization. This property is essential for maintaining the stability and efficiency of magnets under high temperatures and extreme conditions, making Dysprosium a key enabler in the transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy sources.

 

2. High-Temperature Alloys for Aerospace Applications


Dysprosium finds another critical application in the aerospace industry, where high-performance materials are essential for the demanding conditions of aircraft engines and propulsion systems. Dysprosium is alloyed with other metals, such as nickel and iron, to create high-temperature alloys.

These alloys exhibit exceptional strength and stability at elevated temperatures, making them ideal for components in aircraft engines and gas turbines. Dysprosium's contribution to high-temperature alloys ensures the reliability and efficiency of aerospace systems, emphasizing its role in advancing the capabilities of modern air travel.

 

3. Nuclear Control Rods for Safe Energy Production


Dysprosium plays a vital role in the realm of nuclear energy, contributing to the safety and efficiency of nuclear reactors. Dysprosium oxide is utilized in the manufacturing of control rods, which are inserted into nuclear reactors to regulate the rate of nuclear fission reactions.

These control rods, often composed of Dysprosium oxide and other materials, absorb excess neutrons, helping to maintain a stable and controlled nuclear reaction. Dysprosium's presence in nuclear control rods ensures the safety and reliability of nuclear power generation, highlighting its importance in the pursuit of clean and sustainable energy solutions.

 

4. Efficient Lighting with Dysprosium-based Phosphors


Dysprosium's luminescent properties make it a valuable component in the creation of phosphors for lighting applications. Dysprosium-based phosphors are used in fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), enhancing the efficiency and color quality of these lighting technologies.

By incorporating Dysprosium into phosphors, manufacturers can achieve a broader spectrum of colors and improve the overall performance of lighting systems. This application not only contributes to energy-efficient illumination but also plays a role in reducing the environmental impact of traditional lighting technologies.

 

5. Data Storage and Information Technology


In the rapidly evolving landscape of information technology, Dysprosium finds applications in data storage. Dysprosium-based compounds are employed in magnetic data storage devices, such as hard disk drives (HDDs). These compounds enhance the magnetic properties of storage materials, contributing to increased data storage density and improved performance.

As the demand for data storage continues to grow, Dysprosium's role in advancing storage technologies becomes increasingly significant, ensuring the efficiency and reliability of information storage and retrieval systems.

 

6. Medical Imaging and Cancer Treatment


Dysprosium is making strides in the field of medical technology, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cancer treatment. In MRI, Dysprosium-based contrast agents enhance the visibility of specific tissues and structures, providing detailed and accurate diagnostic imaging.

Moreover, Dysprosium isotopes are investigated for their potential application in cancer treatment through brachytherapy. Brachytherapy involves placing radioactive sources, including Dysprosium-165, directly into or near cancerous tumors to deliver targeted radiation therapy. Dysprosium's properties make it a candidate for innovative and precise cancer treatment methodologies.

 

Conclusion


Dysprosium's diverse applications across industries underscore its crucial role in advancing technology, energy, and healthcare. From contributing to clean energy solutions and aerospace innovation to enabling efficient lighting and enhancing medical diagnostics and treatments, Dysprosium's versatile properties make it an invaluable element in the pursuit of progress.

As industries continue to evolve and embrace sustainability, Dysprosium's unique attributes position it as a key player in shaping a future that relies on efficient, clean, and technologically advanced solutions. As the demand for high-performance materials and technologies grows, Dysprosium stands ready to illuminate new paths of innovation and excellence across a spectrum of industries.

History

In the vast expanse of the periodic table, Dysprosium (Dy) stands as a beacon of scientific curiosity, discovery, and industrial innovation. With its atomic number 66, Dysprosium has a rich history that spans centuries, marked by the pursuit of knowledge and the evolution of technologies that have shaped our modern world. Join us on a journey through time as we unveil the epochs of Dysprosium, from its discovery to its pivotal role in diverse applications across industries.

 

1. Early Glimpses and Discovery


The story of Dysprosium begins in the early 19th century when rare earth elements became subjects of fascination for chemists exploring the depths of Earth's minerals. Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, known for his work with rare earth elements, made significant strides in this field. In 1886, he successfully isolated a new substance from the oxide of holmium and erbium. This substance exhibited unique properties and was later identified as Dysprosium.

The name Dysprosium itself is derived from the Greek words "dysprositos," meaning hard to get at or obtain. This moniker reflected the challenges faced by early chemists in isolating and characterizing rare earth elements.

 

2. The Puzzle of Rare Earth Elements


Dysprosium's discovery was part of a larger puzzle involving the identification and isolation of rare earth elements. The rare earths presented a complex challenge due to their similar properties and the difficulty of separating them from each other. This puzzle would captivate the minds of chemists throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, leading to the isolation of several rare earth elements, including Dysprosium.

 

3. Early Uses and Luminescent Exploration


In the early days following its discovery, Dysprosium found limited applications. However, researchers soon uncovered its unique luminescent properties. Dysprosium's ability to emit a range of colors when exposed to external stimuli captured the attention of scientists and opened doors to potential applications in lighting and display technologies.

 

4. World Wars and Strategic Significance


The 20th century brought about a shift in the perception of Dysprosium's importance, particularly during times of conflict. The strategic significance of rare earth elements, including Dysprosium, became apparent during both World War I and World War II. These elements found applications in technologies crucial to wartime efforts, such as radar systems and weaponry.

 

5. Dysprosium in Permanent Magnets


The post-war period witnessed a burgeoning interest in the industrial applications of rare earth elements. Dysprosium, in particular, found a significant role in the development of permanent magnets. Its unique magnetic properties, coupled with its ability to withstand high temperatures, made Dysprosium a crucial component in the creation of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets.

 

6. Clean Energy Revolution


As the world shifted its focus towards sustainable energy solutions, Dysprosium's role in permanent magnets became even more pronounced. These magnets, containing Dysprosium, became essential components in the generators of wind turbines and the motors of electric vehicles. Dysprosium's contribution to clean energy technologies underscored its importance in shaping a more sustainable future.

 

7. Aerospace Advancements


Dysprosium's journey extends beyond Earth's surface, reaching into the skies. The aerospace industry recognized Dysprosium's significance in high-temperature alloys. These alloys, incorporating Dysprosium, proved vital in the manufacturing of components for aircraft engines and gas turbines. Dysprosium's ability to enhance the strength and stability of alloys contributed to the advancements in aerospace technology.

 

8. Medical and Technological Frontiers


In the 21st century, Dysprosium continues to make strides in various fields. Its applications extend to medical technologies, where it plays a role in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and to information storage, contributing to the development of high-density data storage devices.

 

Conclusion


Dysprosium's history is a tapestry woven with scientific curiosity, strategic importance, and technological evolution. From the early days of discovery and luminescent exploration to its crucial role in permanent magnets driving the clean energy revolution, Dysprosium has left an indelible mark on the scientific and industrial landscape.

As we navigate the complexities of the modern world, Dysprosium stands as a testament to the profound impact rare earth elements can have on our lives. Its story, still unfolding, continues to inspire researchers and innovators to explore new frontiers and unlock the full potential of this remarkable rare earth element.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 2.31
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): Unknown
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.80
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 1.22
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
573.017 1125.98 2199.9 4001.25 - - - -

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 3
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
156Dy 155.924 0.056 - -
156Dy 157.924 0.095 - -
156Dy 159.925 2.329 - -
156Dy 160.927 18.889 - -
156Dy 161.927 25.475 - -
156Dy 162.929 24.896 - -
156Dy 163.929 28.26 - -

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: 9.5
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 0.3
Recycle Rate (%): <10
Production Conc.(%) : 97
Top 3 Producers:
1) China
2) Russia
3) Malaysia
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
1) China
2) CIS Countries (inc. Russia)
3) USA
Substitutability: High
Political Stability of Top Producer: 24.1
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: 24.1

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 173
Shear Modulus: 24.7
Young Modulus: 61.4
Bulk Modulus: 40.5
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - 1.54 x 10-8 8.21 x 10-5 0.0241 1.362 27.5 - - - 40.5

Podcast

Transcript:



Welcome back dear listeners, to another exciting episode of "Talking About Elements," the podcast that delves into the fascinating world of chemical elements. I'm your host, and today we have a rare and intriguing element in our spotlight – Dysprosium.

To begin our journey, let's rewind the clock and explore the historical roots of Dysprosium. Its name is derived from the Greek words "dysprositos," which means "hard to get." And indeed, Dysprosium lived up to its name for many years.

Dysprosium was first discovered in 1886 by Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. He isolated Dysprosium from a sample of erbia, a component of the mineral gadolinite. This discovery marked the beginning of our understanding of this elusive element.

Dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol "Dy" and atomic number 66. It belongs to the lanthanide series, a group of elements in the periodic table known for their rarity and unique properties. Dysprosium is silvery-white in appearance and possesses a metallic luster. It's relatively stable in the air but can tarnish when exposed to moisture.

One of Dysprosium's remarkable properties is its high magnetic susceptibility. This characteristic makes it a crucial component in the production of powerful magnets, including those used in electric vehicles and wind turbines.

Now, let's talk about where we can find Dysprosium in nature. While it's considered a rare earth element, Dysprosium is more abundant than some of its lanthanide siblings. It's often found in minerals like xenotime and monazite, as well as in ion-adsorption clays.

The extraction process of Dysprosium from these ores can be quite challenging and requires a series of complex chemical processes. China has been a dominant player in Dysprosium production, as it possesses significant reserves and has invested heavily in its extraction.

Now, let's dive into the myriad of applications that make Dysprosium an indispensable element in modern technology and industry.

Magnets and Motors: Dysprosium, along with other rare earth elements, is a crucial component in the production of high-strength permanent magnets. These magnets are vital in various applications, including electric vehicle motors, wind turbines, and even headphones. The high magnetic susceptibility of Dysprosium allows for smaller, more powerful magnets, which is essential for miniaturization and efficiency in technology.

Nuclear Reactors: Dysprosium finds use in the control rods of nuclear reactors. By absorbing neutrons, Dysprosium helps regulate the fission process and prevent overheating, ensuring the safety and stability of nuclear power plants.

Lighting: Dysprosium compounds are used in lighting applications, such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and certain types of high-intensity discharge lamps. They improve the color rendering index and efficiency of these light sources.

Data Storage: Dysprosium's magnetic properties are also leveraged in data storage. Some hard disk drives and magnetic data storage devices use Dysprosium-based materials to enhance data retention and stability.

Catalysts: Dysprosium-based catalysts play a role in various chemical processes, including petroleum refining and polymerization. They help facilitate reactions and improve the efficiency of industrial processes.

Lasers: Dysprosium-doped lasers are used in materials processing and medical applications. These lasers emit high-intensity, narrow-bandwidth light, making them ideal for precision cutting and medical procedures.

As we move towards a more technologically advanced and sustainable future, the demand for Dysprosium is expected to rise. Electric vehicles, renewable energy sources, and advanced electronics all rely on Dysprosium-based magnets and technologies. Researchers are also exploring more efficient and environmentally friendly methods of Dysprosium extraction to reduce the environmental impact of its production.

In conclusion, Dysprosium may have been "hard to get" in the past, but it has now become an integral part of our modern lives. Its unique properties and diverse applications make it an element worth studying and appreciating. From powering the electric vehicles of tomorrow to ensuring the safe operation of nuclear reactors, Dysprosium has proven itself to be far more than just a rare and obscure element.

Thank you for joining us on this journey through the world of Dysprosium. We hope you've gained a deeper understanding of its history, properties, occurrence, production, and wide-ranging applications. If you enjoyed this episode of "Talking About Elements," be sure to subscribe and stay tuned for more fascinating explorations of the elements that shape our world.

And as always, keep exploring, keep learning, and keep wondering about the incredible world of chemistry. Until next time, this is Jason Woodward.

References


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  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.