Gadolinium

7.90
157.25
[Xe] 4f75d16s2
158Gd
6
f
64
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
593.366
Gd
7.90
1313°C, 2395°F, 1586 K
3273°C, 5923°F, 3546 K
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
1880
7440-54-2
22418
More Information
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Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

Utilized as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance scans, Gadolinium contrast agents enhance image quality. These body scans depend on the magnetic fields generated by water molecules within the body, and upon injection, gadolinium interacts with these water molecules.

Appearance

A soft, silvery metal that reacts with oxygen and water.

Uses



Gadolinium: Illuminating Medical Imaging and Beyond


In the realm of modern medicine, technology continues to play a pivotal role in advancing diagnostics and treatment. Among the myriad elements contributing to these advancements, Gadolinium stands out as a versatile and indispensable tool in the field of medical imaging. From enhancing the clarity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to innovative applications in research and therapy, Gadolinium has proven itself to be a crucial element in the pursuit of better healthcare.

 

1. Improving MRI Clarity


Gadolinium's primary and most well-known application is as a contrast agent in MRI scans. Magnetic resonance imaging relies on the interaction of magnetic fields with the body's water molecules to produce detailed images. However, certain tissues may have similar water content, making it challenging to distinguish between them. Gadolinium contrast agents come to the rescue by altering the magnetic properties of the surrounding tissues, resulting in improved contrast and clearer images.

When injected into the patient's bloodstream, Gadolinium enhances the visibility of specific structures, such as blood vessels, tumors, and organs. This ability to improve the clarity of MRI scans has revolutionized diagnostic capabilities, enabling healthcare professionals to detect and diagnose conditions with greater precision.

 

2. Advancements in Neuroimaging


One area where Gadolinium has made significant strides is in the field of neuroimaging. The element's use as a contrast agent has proven invaluable in visualizing brain lesions, tumors, and abnormalities. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI scans have become a standard procedure in neurology, aiding in the diagnosis and monitoring of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and vascular malformations.

 

3. Targeted Imaging and Theranostics


Beyond traditional diagnostic imaging, Gadolinium is finding applications in the emerging field of theranostics. Theranostics combines diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, allowing for personalized and targeted treatment approaches. Gadolinium-based contrast agents can be designed to target specific receptors or biomarkers, enabling not only enhanced imaging but also the potential for targeted drug delivery.

This dual capability holds promise for the future of precision medicine, where therapies can be tailored to individual patients based on the unique characteristics of their diseases. Gadolinium's role in theranostics exemplifies its versatility and potential in shaping the future of medical care.

 

4. Cardiovascular Imaging


Gadolinium has also made significant contributions to cardiovascular imaging. In cardiac MRI, Gadolinium-based contrast agents are utilized to highlight blood vessels and myocardial tissue, allowing for a comprehensive assessment of heart function and detecting cardiovascular diseases. This application has proven particularly valuable in diagnosing conditions such as myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and congenital heart defects.

 

5. Research Applications


The utility of Gadolinium extends beyond clinical settings into the realm of medical research. Researchers leverage Gadolinium-based contrast agents to investigate physiological processes, study disease progression, and develop new imaging techniques. The element's unique properties make it a valuable tool for exploring the intricacies of biological systems at the molecular level.

 

6. Gadolinium in Cancer Imaging


In the fight against cancer, Gadolinium has emerged as a crucial ally. Its application in oncology includes the detection and characterization of tumors through dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Gadolinium-based contrast agents help visualize the blood flow and permeability of blood vessels within tumors, providing valuable information for cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

 

7. Emerging Therapies


The story of Gadolinium in medicine is evolving, with ongoing research exploring its potential therapeutic applications. Researchers are investigating the use of Gadolinium in combination with other compounds for targeted cancer therapy and as a delivery vehicle for therapeutic agents. These innovative approaches highlight the element's adaptability and its potential to transcend its traditional role as a contrast agent.

 

Conclusion


Gadolinium's journey in the field of medicine is a testament to the ever-expanding horizons of scientific discovery and innovation. From revolutionizing the clarity of MRI scans to pioneering advancements in neuroimaging, cardiovascular imaging, and cancer diagnostics, Gadolinium has become an indispensable tool in modern healthcare. As research continues to unveil new possibilities, Gadolinium's role is poised to expand, offering new avenues for both diagnosis and treatment in the quest for improved patient outcomes and a healthier future.



History

In the vast landscape of the periodic table, each element possesses a unique history and set of properties that contribute to its distinct role in science and industry. One such element, Gadolinium (Gd), has a rich and fascinating history that spans centuries, marked by discovery, isolation, and its evolution into a crucial tool in the field of medical imaging. Let's delve into the luminary journey of Gadolinium, from its initial discovery to its present-day applications.

 

1. The Discovery


The story of Gadolinium begins in 1792 when Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin made a groundbreaking discovery. While examining the mineral yttria, Gadolin identified a novel substance with unique properties. This substance, which he named "yttria earth," laid the foundation for the eventual isolation of Gadolinium.

However, it wasn't until nearly a century later that Gadolinium was officially isolated. In 1880, Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac successfully separated Gadolinium oxide from yttria. This marked the first tangible step in the understanding and utilization of this enigmatic element.

 

2. Isolation and Naming


The isolation of Gadolinium was a collaborative effort that involved multiple chemists. French chemist Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, known for his work on rare earth elements, played a crucial role in isolating Gadolinium in its metallic form. In 1886, Lecoq de Boisbaudran successfully reduced Gadolinium oxide to obtain the pure metal, allowing for further exploration of its properties.

The element was named in honor of Johan Gadolin, the Finnish chemist whose initial discoveries paved the way for its identification. The naming not only commemorated Gadolin's contribution to the understanding of rare earth elements but also solidified the identity of this newly isolated element.

 

3. Magnetic Marvel


One of the early standouts in Gadolinium's repertoire of properties is its magnetic behavior. In the early 20th century, researchers observed Gadolinium's remarkable ability to undergo a magnetic transition known as the Curie point. Near room temperature, Gadolinium exhibits ferromagnetic properties, making it a unique element with practical applications in magnetic research and technology.

This magnetic behavior would later prove pivotal in the development of Gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revolutionizing medical diagnostics.

 

4. The MRI Revolution


The turning point in Gadolinium's history came in the latter half of the 20th century when the element found a groundbreaking application in medical imaging. In the 1980s, scientists began exploring the use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents in MRI scans. The unique magnetic properties of Gadolinium made it an ideal candidate for enhancing the visibility of specific tissues and structures in the human body.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents work by altering the magnetic properties of surrounding tissues, leading to improved contrast in MRI images. This innovation significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of MRI, allowing healthcare professionals to detect and characterize abnormalities with unprecedented clarity.

 

5. Expanding Applications


As the medical community embraced Gadolinium's role in enhancing MRI scans, researchers began to explore additional applications for this versatile element. Gadolinium-based contrast agents were adapted for use in cardiovascular imaging, neuroimaging, and oncology, expanding their impact beyond the realm of general diagnostics.

The ability of Gadolinium to highlight blood vessels, tumors, and specific anatomical structures has become invaluable in various medical specialties. Gadolinium's applications continue to evolve, with ongoing research exploring its potential in targeted drug delivery and emerging therapeutic approaches.

 

6. Challenges and Considerations


Despite its widespread use, Gadolinium-based contrast agents have faced scrutiny due to concerns about their potential retention in the body, particularly in the brain. This has led to ongoing research and discussions within the medical community regarding the safety and optimization of Gadolinium-based imaging agents.

Researchers are actively developing new formulations and exploring alternative contrast agents to address these concerns while maintaining the efficacy of Gadolinium-enhanced imaging.

 

Conclusion


Gadolinium's history is a tale of scientific curiosity, collaboration, and innovation. From its discovery by Johan Gadolin to its isolation by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Gadolinium has transcended its origins to become a transformative force in medical imaging. Its magnetic marvels and applications in MRI have revolutionized diagnostic medicine, providing healthcare professionals with powerful tools to peer inside the human body with unprecedented clarity. As Gadolinium's journey continues, it remains at the forefront of medical research and innovation, shaping the future of diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 2.34
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): Unknown
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.82
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 1.20
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
593.366 1166.51 1990.49 4245 - - - -

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 1
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
152Gd 151.920 0.2 - -
154Gd 153.921 2.18 - -
155Gd 154.923 14.8 - -
156Gd 155.922 20.47 - -
157Gd 156.924 15.65 - -
158Gd 157.924 24.84 - -
160Gd 159.927 21.86 > 1.9 x 1019 y β-β-

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: 9.5
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 0.3
Recycle Rate (%): <10
Production Conc.(%) : 97
Top 3 Producers:
1) China
2) Russia
3) Malaysia
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
1) China
2) CIS Countries (inc. Russia)
3) USA
Substitutability: High
Political Stability of Top Producer: 24.1
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: 24.1

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 235
Shear Modulus: 21.8
Young Modulus: 54.8
Bulk Modulus: 37.9
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - - 5.70 x 10-10 1.54 x 10-6 0.000429 0.0279 0.618 7.39 56.2 37.9

Podcast

Transcript:



Welcome back to "Talking About Elements," the podcast where we unravel the captivating stories behind the elements that shape our world. I'm your host, Jason Woodward, and today, we're shining a spotlight on the remarkable element Gadolinium. From its intriguing history to its wide array of applications, we've got an exciting episode ahead.

Gadolinium, with the atomic symbol Gd on the periodic table, is a unique and versatile element that was first discovered in the 19th century. Its history is intertwined with the tales of exploration and scientific curiosity.

Gadolinium owes its name to the Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin. In 1794, stumbled upon an unusual mineral. This mineral, later named Gadolinite, contained a new element, Gadolinium. This discovery marked the beginning of Gadolinium's journey into the world of science.

So, what makes Gadolinium so intriguing? Well, it possesses a range of remarkable properties. One of its most distinctive features is its magnetic behavior. Gadolinium is highly ferromagnetic, meaning it can become strongly magnetized when exposed to a magnetic field, and this property has found numerous applications.

Gadolinium is also notable for its ability to absorb neutrons. This quality makes it essential in the construction of control rods in nuclear reactors, allowing for precise regulation of nuclear fission reactions and ensuring safety.

But where does Gadolinium come from? It's not as rare as some other elements, and it's typically found in a variety of minerals, including monazite, bastnäsite, and gadolinite. These minerals contain varying amounts of Gadolinium, which must be extracted and purified.

The production of Gadolinium involves several steps, including mining the ore, separating it from other elements, and refining it to obtain high-purity Gadolinium metal or compounds. It's a complex process that requires expertise and precision.

Now, let's explore the myriad of applications for Gadolinium. One of its most well-known uses is in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium-based contrast agents are injected into patients during MRI scans to enhance the visibility of internal structures and detect abnormalities more effectively.

In addition to healthcare, Gadolinium is a key player in the world of electronics. It's used in the production of magneto-optical data storage devices, where its magnetic properties enable data to be both written and read using laser beams.

Gadolinium's magnetic capabilities also extend to the world of green technology. It's used in the development of high-performance wind turbines and electric vehicle motors, contributing to a more sustainable future.

In the realm of material science, Gadolinium compounds are employed in the creation of phosphors for lighting and television screens, ensuring that we enjoy vibrant and energy-efficient displays.

To sum it up, Gadolinium is a truly extraordinary element with a rich history, unique properties, and a wide range of practical applications. From improving medical diagnostics to advancing renewable energy, this element continues to leave its mark on our modern world.

That's all for today's episode of "Talking About Elements." I hope you've enjoyed our journey into the world of Gadolinium. If you found this episode fascinating,

please subscribe and leave a review. And don't hesitate to reach out to us with your questions and ideas for future episodes.

Until next time, keep exploring the elements that shape our universe. Remember, the periodic table is a treasure trove of stories waiting to be uncovered.

References


  • W. M. Haynes, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition, Internet Version 2015, accessed December 2014.

  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.