Krypton

−153.415°C, −244.147°F, 119.735K
83.798
[Ar] 3d104s24p6
84Kr
18
4
p
36
2, 8, 18, 8
1350.757
Kr
−153.415°C, −244.147°F, 119.735K
−157.4°C, -251.32ºF, 115.75K
−153.4°C, -244.12°F, 119.75K
Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers
1898
7439-90-9
5223
More Information
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Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

krypton's light-emitting capabilities find application in various lighting technologies, lasers, propulsion systems, and scientific instrumentation.

Appearance

Krypton is a gas with no colour or smell. It does not react with anything except fluorine gas.

Uses

Illuminating the Applications of Krypton: More Than Just a Noble Gas


Krypton, an inert noble gas with the atomic number 36 and the symbol Kr, is often associated with its use in luminous signs and lighting. However, krypton's applications extend beyond the world of colorful signage. This unassuming element, commonly found in the Earth's atmosphere, has a range of uses in various fields, from lighting to lasers, and even in the field of space exploration. In this article, we will delve into the diverse and intriguing applications of krypton that illuminate its significance in our modern world.

 

Illumination and Lighting


Krypton's most iconic use is in lighting, particularly in neon and fluorescent lights. When krypton gas is sealed in a glass tube and electrified, it produces a bright and steady light. Unlike neon, which emits a reddish-orange glow, krypton produces a white or bluish light. This makes it a popular choice for applications where a clean and vibrant light source is required, such as in photography and signage.

 

Photography and Strobe Lights


Krypton flash tubes, also known as strobe lights, are employed in photography for high-speed photography and capturing fast-moving subjects. These powerful and short-duration light bursts are crucial for freezing motion and obtaining clear images of subjects in motion, making them an essential tool for professional photographers.

 

Laser Technology


Krypton lasers are used in various scientific and medical applications. Krypton laser beams can be tuned to different wavelengths, making them versatile tools for research and medical procedures. They are used in ophthalmology for eye surgery, specifically in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) procedures to reshape the cornea.

 

Analytical Chemistry


In analytical chemistry, krypton is used as a tracer gas in the calibration of instruments that detect and measure trace elements in samples. Its inert nature and well-defined spectral lines make it a valuable tool for ensuring the accuracy of analytical instruments like mass spectrometers.

 

Space Exploration


Krypton finds its place in the field of space exploration. Ion propulsion systems on spacecraft use krypton as a propellant. Krypton ions are accelerated to high speeds by an electric field, producing a thrust that propels the spacecraft forward. This technology is considered more efficient than traditional chemical propulsion and is used for deep-space missions, such as NASA's Dawn spacecraft, which explored the asteroid belt.

 

Medical Imaging


Krypton-81m, a radioactive isotope of krypton, has applications in medical imaging. It is used in nuclear medicine to create images of the lungs and diagnose respiratory disorders. When inhaled, krypton-81m gas can be detected using gamma cameras to produce detailed lung images.

 

Welding


Krypton is also used in specialized welding applications, such as high-frequency welding of certain plastics and metals. The stable electrical discharge created by krypton gas can generate high-energy, high-frequency vibrations that are crucial in the welding of specific materials.

 

Windows for High-Speed Photography


Krypton's ability to provide clear and bright light in short bursts makes it useful in high-speed photography. Special krypton-filled windows can be used in high-speed cameras, allowing precise timing of photographs in fast-paced events, such as explosions, impacts, or scientific experiments.

 

Gas Discharge Lamps


In addition to lighting, krypton gas is used in various gas discharge lamps, including arc welding lamps and certain types of lasers. Its ability to create a stable and efficient discharge of electricity makes it a valuable component in these applications.

 

Cryogenics


Krypton, when cooled to extremely low temperatures, exhibits interesting superfluid and superconducting properties. While not a practical application in everyday life, these characteristics have implications in the field of cryogenics and low-temperature physics, where krypton serves as a model for understanding the behavior of other materials at similarly frigid temperatures.

Conclusion


Krypton, often overshadowed by its more famous noble gas companions, is a versatile and indispensable element in our modern world. Its applications range from lighting and lasers to space exploration and medical imaging. As we continue to explore and harness its unique properties, krypton's significance in various fields becomes increasingly evident. Its role in providing illumination, advancing technology, and even propelling spacecraft exemplifies the diverse ways in which this noble gas illuminates our lives and expands the boundaries of human knowledge and achievement.

See next element of Noble Gas Family: Xenon.

History

Krypton, an element often associated with comic books and science fiction, is a noble gas that has a fascinating history rooted in scientific exploration and discovery. With the atomic number 36 and symbol Kr on the periodic table, krypton is known for its presence in the Earth's atmosphere and its applications in lighting and lasers. In this article, we will journey through the history of krypton, from its initial discovery to its use in space exploration and beyond.

 

Discovery of Krypton


Krypton's story begins with the era of noble gases, a group of elements known for their stability and reluctance to form compounds with other elements. It was in the late 19th century that scientists began to unravel the mysteries of these inert gases, and krypton was no exception.

In 1898, Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers were conducting experiments to isolate and identify the noble gases present in the Earth's atmosphere. While examining the residue left after removing oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, they detected a new and previously unknown element. They named it "krypton," derived from the Greek word "kryptos," meaning "hidden" or "concealed," reflecting its elusive nature.

 

Krypton's Role in the Noble Gas Family


Krypton was identified as a noble gas due to its unreactive nature, a common characteristic of the group. It does not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, making it an essential component of the Earth's atmosphere, alongside other noble gases like helium, neon, argon, and xenon.

 

Applications in Lighting


Krypton's journey from discovery to applications began in the realm of lighting. The gas's ability to produce a bright, white light when an electrical current passes through it led to its use in luminous signs and lighting applications. Krypton's distinct properties made it a valuable addition to neon and fluorescent lights, where it generated a different color spectrum compared to neon gas.

 

High-Speed Photography and Strobe Lights


In the early 20th century, krypton flash tubes, also known as strobe lights, emerged as a groundbreaking technology in high-speed photography. These devices produced intense and brief bursts of light that were instrumental in capturing fast-moving subjects, freezing motion, and obtaining clear images of rapidly changing scenes.

 

Krypton Lasers


Krypton's utility extended to the field of lasers. Krypton lasers, which emit wavelengths in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum, found applications in medical and scientific research. These lasers allowed for precision in medical procedures, including eye surgery, and became important tools in various laboratory experiments.

 

Space Exploration and Ion Propulsion


Krypton's involvement in space exploration represents one of its most remarkable applications. Ion propulsion systems on spacecraft utilize krypton as a propellant. In these systems, electric fields accelerate krypton ions, creating thrust that propels the spacecraft. This technology is highly efficient and has been used in deep-space missions, allowing spacecraft to reach distant destinations with greater speed and precision.

 

Krypton in Medical Imaging


Krypton-81m, a radioactive isotope of krypton, has found its place in the field of medical imaging. It is used in nuclear medicine to create lung images that aid in diagnosing respiratory disorders. When inhaled, krypton-81m gas can be detected using gamma cameras to produce detailed images of the lungs.

 

Krypton's Presence in Everyday Life


Krypton, once an obscure and hidden element, has become an integral part of our modern lives. From the lighting that brightens our streets and homes to the lasers used in medical procedures and scientific research, krypton's role continues to expand. Its contribution to space exploration and understanding the cosmos is a testament to its significance in pushing the boundaries of human knowledge and achievement.

 

The history of krypton, like that of many elements, is a story of discovery, exploration, and innovation. From its serendipitous identification in the late 19th century to its role in space exploration and high-speed photography, krypton has left an indelible mark on science, technology, and everyday life. As we continue to harness its unique properties and expand our understanding of this noble gas, krypton's hidden secrets continue to be revealed, inspiring new applications and innovations that shape our world.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 2.02
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): Not stable
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.16
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): Unknown
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
1350.757 2350.367 3565.13 5065.5 6242.6 7574.1 10710 12138.049

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 2
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
78Kr 77.920 0.355 > 1.5 x 1021 y EC-EC
80Kr 79.916 2.286 - -
82Kr 81.913 11.593 - -
83Kr 82.914 11.5 - -
84Kr 83.911 56.987 - -
86Kr 85.911 17.279 - -

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: Unknown
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 0.0001
Recycle Rate (%): Unknown
Production Conc.(%) : Unknown
Top 3 Producers:
Unknown
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
Unknown
Substitutability: Unknown
Political Stability of Top Producer: Unknown
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: Unknown

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 248
Shear Modulus: Unknown
Young Modulus: Unknown
Bulk Modulus: Unknown
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - - - - - - - - - Unknown

Podcast

Transcript :


Krypton is classified as a Noble Gas. It is the part of Group 18 of the periodic table. These noble gases are known by their relative inertness. They are also known for having full electron valence shells.


The only real problem is obtaining enough of it to get a shot off. One of the largest merchants of Krypton is Concorde Specialty Gases. There are six stable isotopes of Krypton. One isotope, Krypton-85, is a radioactive but the remaining five are inert. Its presence has diminished due to a number of factors. Krypton has a unique spectral signature, a series of sharp emission lines. It has a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. When heated, it emits very bright light. Compared to Argon, this element is heavier. In the past, it was thought to be inert, but this is no longer the case. Krypton is also one of the products of nuclear fission. This gas has a half-life of 10.7 years and has only one radioactive isotope as I said earlier. Spectroscopic analysis is a good way to study gases. Spectral lines produced by gases are very sharp. Using this method, scientists have been able to create several spectral lines for Krypton. These spectral lines can be used to detect if impurities are present in a sample.


Krypton is one of the last elements to be discovered. It was first detected in 1898 in the UK by Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsey during the evaporation of liquid air. His research led to the discovery of the other two noble gases: Xenon and Argon. He received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry as a result of his discoveries, Ramsay was able to propose a new family of elements in the periodic table. Originally, Krypton was thought to be a nonreactive gas but in 1963, the first Krypton derivative was synthesized. It was a mixture of Krypton tetrafluoride and a fluorine gas. Since then, other compounds have been discovered.


There are no krypton-bearing minerals. This element is found naturally in the atmosphere of the earth and in meteorites. The concentration of this gas varies depending on the planet. Generally, this element is present in trace quantities. Currently, Krypton is the sixth most abundant element in the universe by mass. But it is not the most abundant noble gas in the universe. However, this element is only present in the atmosphere at a concentration of about one part per million. This is enough to make its presence known. Furthermore, it is hard to measure how much is actually present. Krypton is found in the Sun and Mars as well. It is also found in the North Korea and Pakistan. Atmospheric testing for the presence of Krypton in these areas began in the early 2000s.


Krypton is an odorless and colorless noble gas. Its properties make it a good choice for excimer lasers. As a matter of fact, this element is about three times heavier than air. It is characterized by sharp emission lines. One of the most notable properties of Krypton is its very fast responsivity to electric current. It becomes liquid when it is cooled below -153.4°C, in standard atmospheric pressure. Similarly, Krypton is combined with Argon to increase the power of fluorescent lamps. Moreover, it can reduce power consumption, and make the lamps more energy efficient. When exposed to electricity, Krypton emits a bluish white light. The emission is caused by the excitation and relaxation of electrons energy. This property makes Krypton suitable for use as an insulator. Krypton is classified as a monoatomic gas. It has a density of about three times that of air.


Generally, Krypton is used as a rare gas. In some cases, it is mixed with other rare gases to create a fluorescent lamp. This makes it a useful ingredient in high-speed photography. It also reduces the evaporation of the filament in incandescent lamps.


This element is often used in flashbulbs to produce bright light for short periods. In addition, the Krypton gas is useful for producing plasma that is a useful medium in bright high-powered gas lasers. It is also used in some small satellites as a propellant for Hall thrusters. This element has a unique spectral signature that is useful for many applications. It can be used as an absorber for X-ray emissions.


Krypton is also used in a powerful laser medium called Krypton fluoride. In addition, it is a filler gas for glass window panes. Some researchers are working on developing new applications for the Krypton-Fluorine laser. Despite its widespread use, Krypton is very expensive. It has few commercial applications. Therefore, it is not expected to be produced in quantity in the near future.



References


  • W. M. Haynes, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition, Internet Version 2015, accessed December 2014.

  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.

  • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements, accessed December 2014.