Manganese

7.3
54.938
[Ar] 3d54s2
55Mn
7
4
d
25
2, 8, 13, 2
717.274
Mn
7.3
1246°C, 2275°F, 1519 K
2061°C, 3742°F, 2334 K
Johan Gottlieb Gahn
1774
7439-96-5
22372
More Information
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Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

The rails of the railway are made of high-manganese steel. High-manganese steel is an alloy steel with a manganese content of more than 10%.

Appearance

A hard, brittle, silvery metal.

Uses

Manganese: A Versatile Element with Pervasive Applications


Manganese, symbolized by the atomic number 25 and the chemical symbol Mn, is an essential trace element that plays a myriad of roles in our daily lives. While it might not have the same level of recognition as elements like iron or carbon, its significance is undeniable. Manganese has found applications in various fields, from industry to health, and its versatile properties continue to shape our world. In this article, we explore the diverse uses of manganese and the profound impact it has on multiple aspects of our lives.

 

1. Metallurgy and Steel Production


One of the most prominent uses of manganese is in the production of steel. Manganese is an indispensable alloying element in the creation of high-strength, low-alloy steels and stainless steels. It enhances the strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion of steel.

In the process of steelmaking, manganese acts as a deoxidizer, removing impurities and ensuring the production of high-quality steel. It is also employed in the production of aluminum alloys and even in the manufacturing of aluminum beverage cans to enhance their strength and durability.

 

2. Batteries and Energy Storage


Manganese is a key component in the development of various types of batteries. One notable example is the alkaline battery, which contains manganese dioxide as one of its primary components. Manganese dioxide provides the cathode material needed for the battery's efficient energy storage and release.

Moreover, manganese plays a crucial role in the production of lithium-ion batteries, used in countless electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage systems. The combination of lithium manganese oxide cathodes has significantly improved the performance and safety of these batteries.

 

3. Agricultural Fertilizers


Manganese is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. It is used in agricultural fertilizers to supplement the soil with this vital element, ensuring that crops receive an adequate supply of manganese. Deficiencies in manganese can lead to stunted growth and reduced crop yields. By providing manganese through fertilizers, farmers can improve the health and productivity of their crops.

 

4. Pigments and Colorants


Manganese compounds have been used for centuries in the creation of pigments and colorants. Manganese dioxide is a key component in the production of black and brown pigments. It is also utilized in the creation of ceramics, glass, and pottery, adding unique colors and properties to these materials.

Manganese-based pigments have found their way into art, industry, and everyday items. Their versatility in providing a wide range of colors and hues continues to make them a valuable resource in the world of art and design.

 

5. Environmental Remediation


Manganese oxide compounds are used in environmental remediation processes. They are applied to remove impurities from water, such as heavy metals and contaminants. Manganese-based sorbents have proven effective in purifying water, making it safe for consumption and industrial use.

 

6. Healthcare and Nutrition


Manganese is an essential trace element for human health. It is required for various biological processes, including enzyme activation, bone formation, and blood clotting. Although needed in small amounts, manganese plays a significant role in maintaining our well-being.

It is essential for the proper functioning of several enzymes, including those involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese also contributes to the synthesis of collagen, an essential component of healthy skin, cartilage, and bones.

Manganese is naturally present in many foods, such as nuts, whole grains, and leafy vegetables. It is also available in dietary supplements to ensure that individuals receive an adequate daily intake.

 

7. The Glass Industry


In the glass industry, manganese is used to decolorize glass and remove unwanted coloration caused by impurities. It is an essential component in the production of clear and colorless glass used for windows, bottles, and various glass products. By eliminating the presence of iron impurities, manganese enhances the transparency and quality of the glass.

 

8. Welding and Metal Fabrication


Manganese is a key component in the production of welding consumables, particularly in the manufacturing of flux-cored wires. These wires are used in welding and metal fabrication processes to create high-strength and low-alloy steel joints. The addition of manganese in welding wires ensures that the resulting welds have the desired strength and durability.

 

Conclusion


Manganese's versatile properties and diverse applications make it an unsung hero in our daily lives. From strengthening steel and enhancing battery technology to supporting agriculture, art, and healthcare, manganese's contributions are deeply woven into various industries and fields.

As we continue to advance in technology, agriculture, and environmental conservation, the role of manganese will only become more pronounced. Its ability to improve the quality and efficiency of materials and processes underscores its importance in shaping our world. Manganese may not always steal the spotlight, but its influence is undeniable and pervasive.

History










Manganese, symbolized by the atomic number 25 and the chemical symbol Mn, is an element that has played a significant role in human history and continues to influence our lives today. This unassuming metal has a storied past that spans centuries, from its initial discovery to its modern-day applications. In this article, we explore the fascinating history of Manganese, from its early encounters to its pivotal role in various industries.

 

Early Encounters and Discovery


Manganese has been used by humanity for thousands of years, although its nature as an element remained unknown until relatively recently. Ancient civilizations were undoubtedly familiar with manganese compounds, often using them for their distinctive properties in ceramics and glassmaking.

The term "Manganese" derives from the Latin word "magnes," which means magnet. This name likely arose from the magnetic properties of certain manganese minerals. However, the element's true nature remained hidden until the late 18th century.

In 1774, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele identified a new element in manganese oxide, which he named "Manganese." Scheele's work contributed to the understanding of this unique metal and its various properties.

 

Manganese's Role in Steelmaking


One of the most significant chapters in Manganese's history is its pivotal role in the development of steel. It wasn't long after its discovery that manganese's unique properties became evident in the world of metallurgy. It was found that manganese, when alloyed with iron, could enhance the strength and durability of steel.

In the 19th century, Henry Bessemer, a British inventor and engineer, made a groundbreaking discovery. He found that adding Manganese to iron ore during the steelmaking process reduced impurities and created a stronger and more malleable steel. This innovation led to the widespread adoption of the Bessemer process, revolutionizing steel production and making it more accessible for various applications.

Today, Manganese remains a vital alloying element in the production of high-strength and low-alloy steels, as well as stainless steel. Its ability to enhance steel's mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion, and overall quality has cemented its role as an essential component in the steel industry.

 

Manganese Dioxide in Ancient Glassmaking


Even before its isolation as an element, Manganese compounds were used in early glassmaking, dating back to ancient times. The use of Manganese dioxide in glass production was particularly significant.

Manganese dioxide was employed as a decolorizing agent, helping to remove unwanted coloration caused by impurities in the glass. By neutralizing the effects of iron impurities, Manganese dioxide enabled the production of clear and colorless glass.

The ancient Romans were among the earliest practitioners of this art. They used Manganese dioxide to create the iconic colorless glass that characterized their glassware and architectural elements. The legacy of Manganese in ancient glassmaking continues to influence modern glass production, ensuring the clarity and quality of glass used in various applications, from windows to laboratory equipment.

 

Manganese in Nutrient and Health Studies


In the realm of health and nutrition, Manganese has emerged as an essential trace element for human well-being. It was not until the 20th century that the importance of Manganese in our diet became fully recognized.

Manganese plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including enzyme activation and bone formation. It is a cofactor for a range of enzymes that contribute to the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol.

Moreover, Manganese is essential for the synthesis of collagen, a vital structural protein that forms the connective tissues in the human body. Collagen is crucial for the health of skin, cartilage, and bones, making Manganese an indispensable element in maintaining overall health.

While Manganese deficiencies are rare, they can lead to health issues, including skeletal and connective tissue problems. As a result, Manganese has been incorporated into dietary supplements to ensure that individuals receive an adequate daily intake.

 

Modern Applications and Environmental ConcernsManganese's journey extends to various modern applications and industries. It is a key component in the creation of batteries, including alkaline batteries and lithium-ion batteries used in electronic devices and electric vehicles.

Manganese-based pigments have also found their way into art and industry, contributing a range of colors and hues to ceramics, glass, and various materials.

However, the use of Manganese is not without challenges. In its various forms, Manganese can have environmental impacts, particularly in the case of mining and industrial operations. Mining activities can lead to the release of Manganese into the environment, where it may pose risks to ecosystems and human health. As a result, research and regulation in the responsible mining and handling of Manganese are ongoing to mitigate its environmental effects.

Manganese's history is a testament to human curiosity and innovation. From its early use in ancient glassmaking to its modern applications in steel production, health, and technology, Manganese's versatility and significance are undeniable.

As we continue to explore new frontiers in science, technology, and industry, the role of Manganese will only become more pronounced. Its ability to improve the quality and efficiency of materials and processes underscores its importance in shaping our world.

Manganese may not always steal the spotlight, but its influence is profound and continues to shape the present and future.








Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 2.05
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): Not stable
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.29
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 1.55
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
717.274 1509.03 3248.468 4940 6985.5 9224 11501.342 18766.4

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0, -1
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
55Mn 54.938 100 - -

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: 5.7
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 774
Recycle Rate (%): >30
Production Conc.(%) : 33
Top 3 Producers:
1) China
2) South Africa
3) Australia
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
1) South Africa
2) Ukraine
3) Brazil
Substitutability: High
Political Stability of Top Producer: 24.1
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: 44.3

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 479
Shear Modulus: Unknown
Young Modulus: Unknown
Bulk Modulus: 118
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - 5.55 x 10-7 0.00221 0.524 24.9 - - - - 118

Podcast

Transcript :



Manganese is part of the iron group and combines with other elements in various proportions. This element is a component in several proteins. This makes it essential for human health. However, too much can be toxic. Manganese can cause muscle weakness, insomnia, headaches, dullness, and Parkinson's disease. This element is essential to life and can be found in the brain, liver, kidneys, bones, and other tissues. Manganese helps in the formation of connective tissue and free radical defense systems, and is also important in macronutrient metabolism. This element is important in the production of a variety of enzymes. Additionally, Manganese is an essential component in a number of different aluminum alloys. It is also an essential component of some animal feed. This element is important in photosynthesis and in free radical defense systems. Manganese is found in cells at active sites in some enzymes, and is stored in the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. It is also important in bone formation. Manganese also helps in the processing of food and the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. This element is also used in metallurgy. In addition, manganese enhances the strength of alloys.

The history of manganese is entwined with the evolution of life.  Manganese's history in the environment is characterized by redox transformations. Specifically, this element is a component of the manganese cycle. It occurs in the form of manganese oxyhydroxides, which are strong sorbents. In 1774, Johann Gottlieb Gahn isolated impure manganese metal. He observed that manganese increased the hardness of iron. During the Upper Paleolithic period, men began using manganese dioxide as cave paint pigment.

In the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that manganese could be used to make chlorine. This process accounted for a large proportion of the consumption of manganese ores.

Another significant contribution to the history of manganese in the environment was the invention of the Bessemer process. In the late nineteenth century, this process used excess oxygen in steel to create the new alloy.

Among the many crucial metals found in the natural world, manganese stands out. Manganese is found in the Earth's crust It can also be extracted from the mineral pyrolusite. This element occurs in the form of manganese oxyhydroxides, which are strong sorbents. It may be found in a variety of minerals, including rhodochrosites. The most common source of manganese is the black mineral pyrolusite. The deposits may be found in a wide variety of locations around the globe. In Virginia, the area around Mineral Ridge in Frederick County was the first place to discover the mineral. This element plays a key role in the function of a great many enzymes. For example, Manganese is a component of the glutamine-ammonium ligase in astrocytes. In addition, manganese is an important component in macronutrient metabolism, free radical defense systems, and bone formation.

This mining area had several significant mines. One of these was the Moses Orndorff prospect. The metallurgist in charge of the assay determined that the deposit had a concentration of manganese dioxide in 76 percent to 83 percent of the ore.

Manganese occurrence and production are important to human health. Elevated concentrations can occur in private wells and in municipal water Manganese occurrence and production are important to human health. Elevated concentrations can occur in private wells and in municipal water. Approximately 8.7 million Americans may be at risk from this exposure. This is because manganese oxidizes easily in the presence of oxygen.

Manganese is a common element in many foods. Some sources include hazelnuts, oatmeal, blueberries, and black tea. The body stores manganese in the liver and kidneys.

Manganese can be found in some marine sedimentary rocks. Some of these are up to 2.5 billion years old. However, most resources are too small to economically mine.

The main sources of imported manganese are China, Australia, and South Africa

In the United States, manganese mining has ceased. All mining in Virginia ceased in 1959. Although the Federal Government Stockpiling Program allowed the reopening of several historic mines, the subsidy program ended in 1958.

Manganese is a transition metal, meaning that it is both ductile and brittle. The chemical properties of manganese include its hardness, magnetic property, and oxidation state. Manganese has several oxidation states, including +1, +2, +3, +4, and +7. These oxidation states are responsible for a wide variety of compounds. For example, manganese reacts with boron to give manganese II boronate MnB2, and with fluorine to form manganese III fluoride MnF3.

Because of its oxidation state, manganese is an extremely reactive metal. When manganese reacts with oxygen or nitrogen, it burns.  This element oxidizes in air and water. It reacts with chlorine, fluorine, and other chemicals to form manganese II chloride. Manganese is also very brittle. Moreover, it is easily oxidized. That is why it cannot be worked on in its pure state.

Typically, manganese forms rhodochrosite, pyrolusite, or oxides. A variety of chemical compounds are made with manganese. These include manganese dioxide, manganese acetate, and manganese fluoride. Its ions can be incorporated in a variety of materials to improve their corrosion resistance, mechanical and antibacterial properties. Manganese is an electropositive metal and has good properties

Manganese has been used for thousands of years, ranging from a stone-age pigment used by humans to a transition metal vital to the development of steel. It is used in the production of other chemical products. Aside from its metallurgical uses, this element is used in various non-metallurgical applications such as plant fertilizers. Manganese is also a key component in the manufacturing of allyl alcohol. It is also used as a fungicide. In addition, Manganese is used to manufacture some optical coatings. The use of manganese ions in biomaterials has increased in recent years. These compounds are nontoxic and inexpensive. They are also able to promote bone regeneration in mouse skull defects. These ions can also be useful in the treatment of bone tumors. The research in this area has received a lot of attention. In particular, the study of manganese in biomaterials has focused on in vitro experiments. This element is also used in the treatment of drinking water.

References


  • W. M. Haynes, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition, Internet Version 2015, accessed December 2014.

  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.

  • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements, accessed December 2014.