Nickel

8.90
58.693
[Ar] 3d84s2
58Ni
10
4
d
28
2, 8, 16, 2
737.129
Ni
8.90
1455°C, 2651°F, 1728 K
2913°C, 5275°F, 3186 K
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
1751
7440-02-0
910
More Information
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Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

Cupro-nickel's exceptional resistance to saltwater corrosion makes it a preferred choice for applications like heat exchangers, piping, and condensers in marine systems.

Appearance

A silvery metal that resists corrosion even at high temperatures.

Uses









Nickel's Versatility Unveiled: Exploring Its Wide Range of Uses


Nickel, with its symbol Ni and atomic number 28, is a versatile and indispensable element that has left an indelible mark on various industries and everyday life. From the coins in our pockets to the advanced alloys used in aerospace, nickel's diverse properties have made it a crucial material in modern society. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of nickel and explore its numerous applications that span across sectors.

 

Currency and Coinage


Nickel is perhaps most familiar to us in the form of coins. Alloyed with copper to create cupronickel, it has been a staple in coinage for over a century. Countries around the world use nickel coins, such as the United States' five-cent coin, commonly known as the "nickel." The durability and resistance to wear make nickel a perfect choice for coins, ensuring they remain in circulation for a long time.

 

Stainless Steel Production


One of the primary applications of nickel is in the manufacturing of stainless steel. Stainless steel, known for its resistance to corrosion, staining, and rust, is widely used in the construction industry for everything from buildings and bridges to kitchen appliances and cutlery. Nickel enhances the corrosion resistance and strength of stainless steel, making it ideal for demanding environments.

 

Aerospace and Aviation


Nickel alloys are essential in the aerospace and aviation industries. These alloys, often referred to as superalloys, are known for their exceptional strength, resistance to high temperatures, and corrosion resistance. They are used in the production of aircraft engines, gas turbines, and other critical components that must endure extreme conditions. The ability of nickel alloys to withstand high temperatures and stresses ensures the reliability and safety of air travel.

 

Chemical Industry


Nickel plays a pivotal role in the chemical industry. It is used as a catalyst in various chemical reactions, aiding in the production of a wide range of products, including petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. Nickel catalysts help facilitate reactions in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, which is used in various applications across industries, from automotive tires to industrial equipment.

 

Electronics and Batteries


Nickel is also a key player in the electronics industry. It is used in the production of various electronic components, including connectors, batteries, and conductive coatings. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries are popular in many electronic devices and vehicles, offering a reliable and rechargeable power source. These batteries have been used in hybrid and electric vehicles, and their demand continues to grow in the era of sustainable transportation.

 

Renewable Energy


Nickel's importance is growing in the renewable energy sector, primarily due to its use in nickel-based batteries, including lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium batteries. These batteries are vital for storing energy generated by wind turbines and solar panels, ensuring a steady power supply when the weather is not conducive to energy production. As the world shifts towards renewable energy sources, nickel's role in energy storage becomes increasingly significant.

 

Healthcare and Medicine


Nickel is widely used in the healthcare and medical field, particularly in the production of medical equipment and implants. Nickel-titanium alloys, known as Nitinol, have unique shape memory and superelastic properties. These characteristics make them ideal for applications like stents, dental wires, and orthopedic devices, enhancing patient care and treatment outcomes.

 

Alloys and Alloys for Corrosion Resistance


Nickel is alloyed with various elements to create specialized materials for specific applications. For example, nickel-copper alloys, known as Monel, are renowned for their exceptional resistance to corrosion and are used in marine environments, chemical processing, and oil and gas industries. In addition, nickel-molybdenum alloys are highly resistant to corrosion by reducing acids, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, making them valuable in the chemical processing industry.

 

Electrical Conductivity


Nickel's excellent electrical conductivity properties have led to its use in electrical and electronic applications. It is commonly used as a component in electrical wires, connectors, and switches. Its ability to conduct electricity efficiently, combined with its corrosion resistance, ensures the reliability of electrical systems.

 

Plating and Surface Finishing


Nickel is widely employed for plating and surface finishing applications, such as electroplating. Nickel plating enhances the appearance and corrosion resistance of various objects, including household items, automotive parts, and even jewelry. It provides a smooth and lustrous finish while protecting the underlying material from corrosion.

 

Conclusion


Nickel's versatility knows no bounds, and its remarkable properties have established it as a fundamental element in numerous industries. From stainless steel in construction to superalloys in aerospace, from catalysts in the chemical industry to batteries powering electric vehicles, nickel's applications continue to expand as technology advances and the world shifts towards sustainable solutions.

However, it is essential to ensure that the extraction and use of nickel are carried out responsibly, with consideration for environmental and ethical concerns. Sustainable mining practices and recycling efforts are vital steps in securing a future where nickel continues to play a central role in progress and innovation without compromising our planet and its resources. Nickel's journey through history is a testament to its adaptability and resilience, making it an enduring element in shaping our modern world.








History

Nickel, symbolized as Ni with its atomic number 28, is an element with a captivating history that stretches across centuries. Its unique properties and remarkable versatility have made it an essential material in various industries and everyday life. In this article, we will embark on a journey through time to explore the intriguing history of Nickel and its enduring significance in human civilization.

 

Nickel in Antiquity


The history of Nickel dates back to ancient times, though its discovery as a distinct element occurred much later. Early civilizations used nickel-bearing ores in the form of naturally occurring alloys, often without realizing the presence of nickel.

One such alloy, known as kupfernickel, was an essential material for crafting weapons, tools, and ornaments in medieval Europe. However, this intriguing ore often proved perplexing to miners, as it did not behave like the familiar copper they were accustomed to working with.

 

Discovery and Naming


The true nature of nickel remained concealed until the 18th century when Swedish chemist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt succeeded in isolating nickel as a separate element. In 1751, Cronstedt identified nickel as a unique metal during his experiments. He named it "nickel" in reference to the ore from which it was often derived, recognizing its distinct characteristics and properties.

 

Nickel's use in coinage


The unique properties of nickel, particularly its resistance to corrosion, made it a valuable choice for coinage. The United States was among the first countries to incorporate nickel into its currency, with the introduction of the Shield nickel in 1866. This five-cent coin, commonly referred to as the "nickel," featured nickel in its composition, and it is still in use today, serving as a testament to the element's durability.

 

Nickel in Alloys


Nickel's ability to form robust alloys with other metals has been instrumental in various industries. It is widely used in the production of stainless steel, where it enhances the material's corrosion resistance and durability. Stainless steel, found in everything from kitchen appliances to skyscrapers, owes much of its success to the addition of nickel.

 

Aerospace and Super Alloys


Nickel's contribution to the aerospace industry is significant. Nickel alloys, often referred to as superalloys, exhibit remarkable strength and resistance to high temperatures. These alloys are crucial in the production of aircraft engines, gas turbines, and other aerospace components. Their ability to withstand extreme conditions ensures the safety and reliability of air travel.

 

Electrical and Electronics Applications


Nickel's excellent electrical conductivity makes it an ideal choice for various electrical and electronic applications. It is commonly used in electrical wiring, connectors, and switches, ensuring the efficient flow of electricity. Additionally, nickel's magnetic properties find use in components such as transformers, sensors, and electric motors.

 

Chemical Catalyst


Nickel's catalytic properties have made it indispensable in the chemical industry. Nickel catalysts play a crucial role in promoting various chemical reactions, aiding in the production of petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. They are particularly vital in the synthesis of synthetic rubber, an essential material used in the manufacture of tires, seals, and various industrial equipment.

 

Healthcare and Medical Devices


Nickel's biocompatibility and corrosion resistance make it a valuable material in the healthcare and medical field. Nickel-titanium alloys, known as Nitinol, are employed in medical implants and devices, including stents, orthopedic components, and dental instruments. These alloys exhibit remarkable shape memory and superelasticity, enhancing patient care and treatment outcomes.

 

Renewable Energy and Batteries


With the rise of renewable energy sources, nickel's importance has extended to the production of batteries. Nickel-based batteries, such as nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, have been widely used in electronic devices and vehicles. NiMH batteries, for instance, have played a crucial role in hybrid and electric vehicles, providing reliable and rechargeable power sources.

 

Mining and Extraction


Nickel is primarily obtained from nickel sulfide ores and laterite ores through mining and extraction processes. The leading nickel-producing countries include Indonesia, the Philippines, and Russia, with vast reserves and mining operations. However, the mining and processing of nickel ores raise environmental and ethical concerns, such as deforestation, water pollution, and the welfare of local communities.

 

Environmental and Ethical Considerations


As the demand for nickel continues to rise, addressing environmental and ethical concerns in the industry has become a pressing issue. Sustainable mining practices, responsible sourcing, and recycling efforts are essential to minimize the negative impact of nickel mining. Additionally, ongoing research focuses on developing alternative materials and methods to reduce the environmental footprint associated with nickel production.

 

Nickel's history is a remarkable journey through time, from its early use as an alloy in ancient weaponry to its pivotal role in modern technology and industry. The enduring appeal of nickel lies in its versatility, strength, and resistance to corrosion, which have established it as an indispensable element in our everyday lives.

However, the sustainable future of nickel relies on addressing the environmental and ethical challenges associated with its mining and extraction. Responsible practices and ongoing research efforts aim to ensure that nickel's legacy remains one of progress, innovation, and environmental responsibility. As we continue to rely on nickel's exceptional properties, its history serves as a reminder of the need to balance progress with sustainability and ethical considerations in the journey forward.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 1.97
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): 111.537
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.17
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 1.91
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
737.129 1753.027 3395.32 5297 7338.67 10420 12833 15631

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 3, 2, 0
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
58Ni 57.935 68.077 > 4 x 1019 y EC-EC
60Ni 59.931 26.223 - -
61Ni 60.931 1.1399 - -
62Ni 61.928 3.6346 - -
64Ni 63.928 0.9255 - -

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: 6.2
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 26.6
Recycle Rate (%): >30
Production Conc.(%) : 17
Top 3 Producers:
1) Russia
2) Indonesia
3) Philippines
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
1) Australia
2) New Caledonia
3) Brazil
Substitutability: High
Political Stability of Top Producer: 18.4
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: 74.5

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 444
Shear Modulus: 76.0 (soft): 83.9 (hard)
Young Modulus: 199.5 (soft): 219.2 (hard)
Bulk Modulus: 177.3 (soft); 187.6 (hard)
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - - 2.19 x 10-10 1.09 x 10-6 0.000471 0.0438 1.37 19.5 - 177.3 (soft); 187.6 (hard)

Podcast

Transcript :



Nickel belongs to the family of metals known as the transitioning metals. This element is a member of the iron group. It is also important to know that nickel is one of the most recyclable metals in the world. Nickel is a transition metal that exhibits oxidation states of +1, +3, and +4. This element is a white, silvery-white metallic element with the chemical symbol Ni. Studies have shown that exposure to nickel compounds can increase the risk of certain cancers. Specifically, workers who are exposed to nickel at the sinter plant in Canada have been found to have an increased risk of pharyngeal cavity and buccal cavity cancers. A number of complex compounds are formed from nickel. These include coordination numbers 4, 5 and 6. Nickel is also an essential component of several enzymes. Although nickel is not directly toxic, it can damage plants and algae. For example, its presence can decrease growth rates.

There has been a lengthy history of large price changes, despite the fact that its existence is very brief. In the late 1990s, the price of nickel skyrocketed, then fell back before regaining its previous momentum. The cost of nickel reached a point where it could be considered stable around the beginning of the 2000s. But in the past two years, it has experienced big price swings.

The history of nickel is very interesting. The name "nickel" was first given to the metal by Swedish chemist Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. He isolated the metal in 1751 and presented it to the Swedish Academy of Sciences. Approximately five and a half thousand years ago, several civilizations in the ancient world incorporated nickel into their structures. Today, the demand for nickel is growing at an average rate of four percent a year. This provision is mostly being driven by emerging nations that are now undergoing infrastructural expansions.

Nickel is found naturally in the Earth's crust and in soil. The average nickel content in soil is around 20 ppm. However, there is a range of 4-80 ppm. This is due to a wide variety of factors, including soil chemistry, weathering of nickel-containing rocks, and atmospheric deposition.

There are two ores that are used to extract nickel: laterites and magmatic sulfides. Pure native nickel is discovered in ultramafic rocks. It is also identified in meteorites. This element is commonly indicated in association with iron and sulfur in millerite. Other minerals associated with nickel include copper, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite.

In the United States, there are a number of natural sources of particulate nickel. Some of these include dissolution of nickel-containing soil, atmospheric deposition, and windblown dust. Anthropogenic nickel sources include manufacturing and processing facilities, as well as industrial and urban refuse.

The most important property of nickel is that it has high conductivity and it is an essential element in making a variety of materials. Nickel has the same properties as copper and iron, and this element is resistant to oxidation. It is ductile and malleable and is one of only the four magnetic elements at room temperature.

This element is a ferromagnetic metal that is resistant to corrosion. The boiling point is 2913ºC, while the melting point is 1453ºC. Electrons are positively charged in nickel, meaning that nickel has a high electron affinity. The atom of Nickel has a cubic crystal structure with two valence electrons.

This element has an atomic density of 8.9 g per cm3. When compared to other metals, nickel is a relatively cheap element. It dissolves in dilute acids. The chemical properties of nickel include its ability to absorb hydrogen. This property makes it an excellent conductor of heat and electricity and in addition, Nickel is resistant to high temperatures and oxidation.

Nickel is a rare metal that has a wide range of applications. It is used in alloys that are used to make electrical components. In regard to it anyway, this element is a key component in the production of a variety of different kinds of plastics. Nickel is a metal that has been used by people all over the globe for hundreds of years. It was mined and used as a precious metal at the time, but in the modern world this element is mostly utilized as a corrosion-resistant alloy. Nickel is also used in rechargeable battery systems. It is also used as a component in electroplating. This element is found in a number of products including watches, electronics, mobile phones and electric guitar strings. It is a metal that is primarily used for the production of stainless steel and nickel-base superalloys. Most of the nickel that is produced is used alloys with copper and chromium. These alloys can be shaped into tubes, rods, and sheets. Stainless steels are also widely used in coinage.

Nickel is commonly used in alloys, such as monel. It is a type of alloy that is made up of 60 to 70 percent nickel and copper. The combination of the two elements allows for its high resistance to corrosion and makes it perfect for propeller shafts in boats and desalination plants

Nickel is also used in magnetic shielding. This element is also used in aeronautics. Early uses of the metal include making military equipment, making coins, and plating. It is also used in the manufacture of nickel alloys, and in the production of batteries. This element is employed in many different industrial and consumer goods

Nickel is used in alloys for high strength and corrosion resistance. This characteristic makes it useful in the manufacturing of jet engines and gas turbines. In addition, nickel is used for plating, coinage and batteries. It is also used in storage tanks for hydrogen-based energy sources. They are widely used in the chemical, telecommunications, and aerospace industries. They are also used for electroplating and other industrial purposes.

Decorative nickel plating is often used to enhance the exterior of auto parts. It may contain chromium additives for increased brightness.

References


  • W. M. Haynes, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition, Internet Version 2015, accessed December 2014.

  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.

  • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements, accessed December 2014.