Palladium

12.0
106.42
[Kr] 4d10
106Pd
10
5
d
46
2, 8, 18, 18
804.389
Pd
12.0
1554.8°C, 2830.6°F, 1828 K
2963°C, 5365°F, 3236 K
William Hyde Wollaston
1803
7440-05-3
22380
More Information
expand all +
collapse all -

Uses and Properties

Image Explanation

From catalyzing emissions reduction in internal combustion engines to powering the fuel cells of tomorrow, Palladium is steering the automotive sector towards a future where environmental responsibility and technological innovation converge.

Appearance

A shiny, silvery-white metal that resists corrosion.

Uses

Palladium's Diverse Brilliance: Exploring its Varied Applications Across Industries


In the realm of precious metals, Palladium stands as a shining example of versatility, playing a crucial role across a spectrum of industries. From its roots in catalysis to its contemporary applications in cutting-edge technologies, Palladium has become a cornerstone in advancing various fields. This article explores the multifaceted uses of Palladium, highlighting its impact on everything from clean air initiatives to the world of high-tech electronics.

 

1. Catalyzing Cleaner Air: Palladium in Catalytic Converters


Among its most notable applications, Palladium's role in catalytic converters has significantly impacted the automotive industry and environmental conservation. Incorporated into catalytic converters alongside other platinum-group metals, Palladium serves as a catalyst for chemical reactions that convert harmful pollutants from combustion engines into less toxic substances.

This technology has been pivotal in curbing air pollution, making vehicles more environmentally friendly and aligning with global efforts to reduce harmful emissions. As the automotive sector continues to evolve towards sustainability, Palladium remains an essential component in catalyzing cleaner air.

 

2. Powering the Future: Palladium in Hydrogen Fuel Cells


Palladium takes center stage in the realm of sustainable energy as a key player in hydrogen fuel cells. In these cells, Palladium acts as a catalyst, facilitating the electrochemical reactions that convert hydrogen into electricity. This process emits only water vapor as a byproduct, offering a clean and efficient alternative to traditional power sources.

As the world shifts towards greener energy solutions, the applications of Palladium in fuel cells position it as a driving force in the pursuit of sustainable and eco-friendly technologies.

 

3. Jewelry's Modern Marvel: Palladium's Elegance in Fine Jewelry


Beyond its industrial applications, Palladium has found a place of distinction in the world of fine jewelry. Coveted for its lustrous, silvery-white appearance and remarkable durability, Palladium has become an increasingly popular choice for crafting exquisite jewelry pieces. Jewelers appreciate its malleability, allowing for intricate designs while maintaining a timeless elegance.

Palladium's presence in the jewelry industry speaks to its adaptability, offering a sophisticated alternative to traditional precious metals like gold and platinum.

 

4. Strengthening the Core: Palladium in Electronics and Technology


Palladium's exceptional properties extend to the heart of modern technology, contributing to the production of advanced electronics. Its superior conductivity, stability, and resistance to oxidation make Palladium a key component in various electronic devices, particularly in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). These capacitors are integral to the functioning of electronic gadgets, from smartphones to laptops.

As technology continues to advance, Palladium's role in the electronics industry remains pivotal, ensuring the reliability and efficiency of electronic devices.

 

5. Catalyst of Progress: Palladium in Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries


Palladium's catalytic prowess finds applications beyond the automotive sector, extending into the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. As a catalyst, Palladium facilitates a myriad of chemical reactions, contributing to the synthesis of essential compounds. This includes pharmaceutical manufacturing, where Palladium catalysis is employed to streamline processes, enhance efficiency, and produce a range of therapeutic agents.

In the laboratory and industrial settings, Palladium serves as a catalyst for reactions that contribute to the development of diverse chemical compounds.

 

6. Space-Grade Resilience: Palladium in Aerospace Applications


The unique properties of Palladium also make it indispensable in aerospace applications. Its use in aerospace technologies ranges from satellite components to spacecraft fuel cells. Palladium's reliability in extreme conditions, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand the rigors of space exploration make it a preferred material in aerospace engineering.

As humanity continues to explore the cosmos, Palladium remains an essential element in the construction of space-worthy materials and technologies.

 

7. Resurgence in Currency: Palladium in Coin Minting


In the world of numismatics, Palladium has experienced a resurgence as a coveted metal for coin minting. Its rarity, stability, and elegant appearance make Palladium coins desirable among collectors and investors alike. Several countries have introduced Palladium coins, adding a touch of prestige to numismatic collections and diversifying investment portfolios.

The use of Palladium in coinage reflects its enduring appeal and recognition as a precious metal with intrinsic value.

 

8. Towards a Greener Tomorrow: Palladium in Environmental Sensors


Palladium's sensitivity to hydrogen has led to its application in environmental sensors. These sensors utilize Palladium's ability to absorb and release hydrogen as a means of detecting changes in environmental conditions. From monitoring air quality to detecting leaks in industrial settings, Palladium-based sensors contribute to ensuring safety and environmental awareness.

Palladium's presence in environmental sensors aligns with the global push for sustainable practices and technologies.

 

Conclusion: Palladium's Shining Legacy Across Industries


As we delve into the diverse applications of Palladium, it becomes evident that its brilliance extends far beyond the confines of traditional uses. From purifying the air we breathe to powering the vehicles of the future, enhancing the sparkle of fine jewelry to enabling the electronic devices we rely on daily, Palladium's contributions are truly multifaceted.

As technology advances and industries evolve, Palladium's versatility ensures its enduring relevance and positions it as a crucial element in shaping the trajectory of progress across various fields. In the grand symphony of elements, Palladium stands as a shining note, harmonizing with the needs of a dynamic and ever-changing world.

History

In the rich tapestry of the periodic table, Palladium (P) emerges as a remarkable element, its history intricately woven into the fabric of scientific exploration, industrial innovation, and cultural significance. From its discovery in the early 19th century to its present-day prominence in diverse applications, the journey of Palladium is a captivating narrative of discovery, transformation, and enduring value.

 

1. The Dawn of Discovery: Unveiling Palladium in the Urals


The story of Palladium began in 1803 when English chemist William Hyde Wollaston discovered an unknown metal while examining samples of platinum ore from the Ural Mountains in Russia. This newfound element exhibited properties distinct from platinum, leading Wollaston to isolate it in pure form in 1804. The discovery marked the birth of Palladium, named after the asteroid Pallas, which itself was named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena.

The isolation of Palladium, alongside other platinum-group metals, expanded the understanding of the elemental composition of platinum ore and opened new avenues for scientific inquiry.

 

2. Puzzling Properties: Palladium's Role in Platinum Chemistry


In the early stages of its discovery, Palladium's properties intrigued scientists. William Hyde Wollaston, the same chemist who discovered Palladium, further contributed to its characterization by identifying its ability to absorb large volumes of hydrogen. This unique property would later play a significant role in Palladium's application in the field of hydrogen storage and catalysis.

 

3. The Journey to the Marketplace: Palladium in Dental Alloys


Palladium's transition from the laboratory to practical applications gained momentum in the late 19th century. Its resistance to corrosion and tarnish, coupled with its malleability, made Palladium an ideal candidate for dental alloys. Dentists and dental technicians began incorporating Palladium into dental crowns and bridges, appreciating its biocompatibility and aesthetic appeal.

The use of Palladium in dentistry marked its entry into the commercial market, showcasing its versatility beyond the confines of the laboratory.

 

4. The Platinum Group Dynamo: Palladium's Industrial Influence


As industrialization swept the globe, Palladium's utility expanded across various industries. Its inclusion in the platinum group of metals, alongside Platinum, Rhodium, Ruthenium, and Iridium, positioned Palladium as a critical component in the manufacturing of catalysts, electrical contacts, and a variety of high-tech applications.

Palladium's catalytic properties, particularly in chemical processes, elevated its status as a catalyst, facilitating reactions in the production of nitric acid and other essential chemicals.

 

5. Catalyzing Automotive Innovation: Palladium in Catalytic Converters


Palladium found its automotive calling in the latter half of the 20th century when it became a key component in catalytic converters. These devices, integral to reducing harmful emissions from internal combustion engines, employ Palladium as a catalyst to convert pollutants into less harmful substances.

The widespread adoption of catalytic converters in automobiles propelled Palladium into the spotlight as a critical player in addressing environmental concerns related to air quality and pollution.

 

6. Palladium's Precious Rise: A Noble Metal in Jewelry Design


Palladium's journey into the world of jewelry began in the early 20th century, but it gained significant momentum in recent decades. Valued for its rarity, purity, and hypoallergenic properties, Palladium has become a sought-after metal for crafting fine jewelry. Its silvery-white luster, durability, and versatility have made it an attractive alternative to traditional precious metals like gold and platinum.

The use of Palladium in jewelry reflects evolving tastes and a growing appreciation for metals that blend timeless elegance with contemporary allure.

 

7. Palladium's Electron Dance: A Key Player in Electronics


The electronic revolution of the late 20th century witnessed Palladium taking center stage in the manufacturing of advanced electronics. Its excellent conductivity and stability made it an essential component in the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), a ubiquitous component in electronic devices. Palladium's role in the electronics industry further underscores its adaptability to the demands of modern technology.

 

8. Beyond Earth: Palladium in Space Exploration


Palladium's versatility extends beyond the confines of our planet. In the realm of space exploration, Palladium serves as a vital component in various technologies, including fuel cells for spacecraft and satellites. Its ability to facilitate efficient energy conversion aligns with the demands of space missions, where reliability and performance are paramount.

 

Conclusion: Palladium's Enduring Legacy and Future Horizons


From the Urals to outer space, Palladium has traversed a diverse and expansive journey, leaving an indelible mark on science, industry, and culture. Its unique properties have positioned it as a versatile and indispensable element in applications ranging from dentistry to automotive catalysis, jewelry design, electronics, and even space exploration.

As we stand on the precipice of a new era marked by technological innovation and environmental consciousness, Palladium's story continues to unfold. Its presence in emerging technologies, coupled with its enduring appeal in traditional industries, attests to the enduring legacy of this elemental marvel. Whether catalyzing cleaner air or adorning the most exquisite jewelry, Palladium stands as a testament to the limitless possibilities encapsulated within the periodic table.

Atomic Data

Atomic Radiues, Non-bonded (A): 2.10
Electron Affinity (kJ mol-1): 54.225
Covalent Radiues (A): 1.30
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 2.20
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
804.389 1874.71 3177.26 - - - - -

Oxidation States and Isotopes

Common oxidation states 1
Isotope Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Half Life Mode of Decay
102Pd 101.906 1.02 - -
104Pd 103.904 11.14 - -
105Pd 104.905 22.33 - -
106Pd 105.903 27.33 - -
108Pd 107.904 26.46 - -
110Pd 109.905 11.72 - -
 

Supply Risk

Relative Supply Risk: 7.6
Crustal Abundance (ppm): 0.000037
Recycle Rate (%): >30
Production Conc.(%) : 60
Top 3 Producers:
1) South Africa
2) Russia
3) Zimbabwe
Top 3 Reserve Holders:
1) South Africa
2) Russia
3) USA
Substitutability: High
Political Stability of Top Producer: 44.3
Political Stability of Top Reserve Holder: 44.3

Pressure and Temperature Data

Specific Heat Capacity: 244
Shear Modulus: 18
Young Modulus: 46
Bulk Modulus: 33
Pressure 400k Pressure 600k Pressure 800k Pressure 1000k Pressure 1200k Pressure 1400k Pressure 1600k Pressure 1800k Pressure 2000k Pressure 2200k Pressure 2400k
- - - 8.27 x 10-9 1.40 x 10-5 0.00277 0.144 3.07 30.4 - 33

Podcast

Transcript :



Palladium, the second platinum metal. It is a very versatile metal and its atomic number is 46. This element is a particularly good catalyst for homogeneous chemical reactions. Often Palladium is combined with a wide variety of ligands for selective transformations. Among these are the aryl nitriles, which are key intermediates in many transformations in organic chemistry.

Palladium is the most studied transition metal. Some Palladium compounds are considered carcinogenic and can damage the eyes, kidneys, and other organs. Therefore, people should avoid occupational exposure to high levels of Palladium. It has a number of similarities with platinum. For instance, it has a high reactivity level and is attacked by acids more easily than platinum. This element is commonly alloyed with gold to form white gold. There is a lot of research being done on Palladium, especially its ability to absorb hydrogen. Scientists are continually attempting to produce superior Palladium alloys.

The discovery of Palladium was made by William Hyde Wollaston, an English chemist. In 1803 he isolated Palladium and named it after the asteroid Pallas discovered a year earlier by the astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, and which was associated with the goddess of wisdom. After he discovered Palladium, Wollaston made further contributions to chemistry. He also invented a number of devices in various fields.

His discoveries of palladium was reported to the Royal Society of London in 1805. He then wrote a paper describing the metal and establishing its existence as an element. However, he did not publicly reveal its identity until 1805.

He advertised the metal anonymously on handbills. His advertisement was posted in the Soho section of London. No one claimed a reward.

During his experimentation, Wollaston by Studying crude or unpurified platinum, he dissolved it in aqua regia, removed the excess of the acid, and added mercury cyanide to the solution. A yellow precipitate was formed. Heating the solution with Sulphur and borax, he obtained bright metal balls. Wollaston named the new metal “palladium”. His success was largely owing to the fact that he had found a proper precipitating agent for palladium, mercury cyanide, which does not precipitate other platinum metals.

Using this knowledge, he began to study the properties of platinum and other platinum group metals.

By 1803 he had isolated platinum and rhodium. A year later, he was awarded the Copley Medal for his Palladium experiments.

Palladium occurs in the Earth's crust at a very low concentration of 0.015 parts per million. In comparison, silver is found in 0.075 ppm, platinum at 0.005 ppm, while gold is estimated at 0.004 ppm in the earth’s crust. Palladium is a metal that can be found in nature and in ore deposits throughout the world. The most common mines are in South Africa, Russia, Canada, and the United States. In the early 21st century, these countries are the largest producers of Palladium. Palladium can also be present at low levels in some soils, and the leaves of trees have been found to contain 0.4 ppm. Some plants, such as the water hyacinth, are killed by low levels of palladium salts but most plants tolerate it, although tests indicate that their growth is affected at levels above 3 ppm.

Most of the commercial production of Palladium is in the form of a by-product from the refining of nickel and copper. However, it can also be extracted from spent nuclear fuel. Palladium is found in several different forms, but the majority is in the form of sulfide minerals. Braggite is a popular source of Palladium. The element is also recovered as a byproduct of mining other metals.

Palladium is a malleable white metal with a high lustre. This platinum metal has the lowest density of any platinum group metals. It is characterized by its low melting point of 1554.9°C. Palladium is ductile and corrosion-resistant. There are two polymorphs of Palladium hydride: alpha Palladium and beta Palladium Hydrides. Generally, alpha-Palladium Hydride has hydrogen atoms in tetrahedral sites, while beta Palladium Hydride has hydrogen atoms mainly in octahedral sites. Depending on the chemistry of the Palladium alloy, both polymorphs can coexist. In its crystal form, palladium takes the form of a face-centered cubic. Palladium has a high electron affinity, which means it attracts more electrons. The oxidation state of Palladium is +2. When Palladium is heated, it produces Palladium oxide. This oxide is a dark yellow, gelatinous precipitate that is soluble in many acids.

At room temperature, Palladium is a strong absorber of hydrogen gas.

For a variety of purposes, Palladium is alloyed with copper, gold, and silver. Comparatively, these alloys are substantially more affordable than pure Palladium. Its unique properties make Palladium a very valuable component in many types of catalytic devices.

Palladium is used in chemical and medical applications. It has seen considerable utilization in subsequent times due to its ability to allow novel organic chemistry reactions. It is one of the most important metals in organic synthesis. This is because Palladium can bind with a wide variety of functional groups, allowing it to react in many different ways.

Increased demand of Palladium may be traced to the introduction of more stringent standards for vehicle emissions. The result is an increase in the metal's demand. The auto industry uses more than half of the global Palladium supply. Its use is growing due to catalytic converters for cars. Catalytic converters convert pollutants into nontoxic substances. The catalyst consists of a tubelike structure coated with Palladium. When the exhaust from an engine is burned, the gases are trapped inside the tube. This process converts 90 percent of the harmful gases in automobile exhaust into nontoxic substances. The Palladium-copper alloy has been used to produce multi-layer ceramic capacitors. In addition, Palladium is used in jewelry and also in making dental and surgical instruments.

References


  • W. M. Haynes, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition, Internet Version 2015, accessed December 2014.

  • Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, Kaye & Laby Online, 16th edition, 1995. Version 1.0 (2005), accessed December 2014.

  • J. S. Coursey, D. J. Schwab, J. J. Tsai, and R. A. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (version 4.1), 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, accessed November 2016.

  • T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954.

  • John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd Edition, 2011.

  • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements, accessed December 2014.